What Is Project Method?

What Is Project Method? - Meaning, Definition And Types Of Project Method Of Teaching, Steps Of Project Method, Advantages And Disadvantages Of Project Method, Role Of Teacher In Project Methods

What Is Project Method?

Meaning Of Project Method

Project Is The Modern Method In Which The Student’s Creativity In Designing The Content Of Studies.

Definition Of Project Method In Teaching

According To W.H. Kilpatrick, ―A Project Is A Wholehearted Purposeful Activity Proceeding In A Social Environment.

Types Of Project

3 Major Types Of Project Method Of Teaching Are

  1. Individual And Social Projects
  2. Group Projects
  3. Simple And Complex Projects

1. Individual And Social Projects

In Individual Project Every Student’s Problem Is Solved In Their Own According To Interest, Capacity And Attitude.

2. Group Projects

The Problem Is Solved By The Group Of Pupils In The Class. Here The Social, Citizenship Qualities Developed.

3. Simple And Complex Projects

In The Simple Projects The Students Are Completing Only One Work At A Time. It Gives The Deep Information Of The Project; Thus, The Students Get Deeper And Broader Knowledge About The Problem.

In The Complex Project, The Students Are Carried Out More Than One Work At A Time. They Are Focuses On The Work In Various Activities And Dimensions.

According To Kilpatrick There Are Four Types Of Projects. They Are

  1. Constructive Project
  2. Aesthetic Project
  3. Problematic Project
  4. Drill Project
1. Constructive Project:

Practical Or Physical Tasks Such As Construction Of Articles, Making The Models And Playing The Drama All Done In This.

2. Aesthetic Project:

Appreciation Powers Of The Students Are Developed In This Type Of Project Through The Musical Programmes Of Beautician And Appreciation Of Poems.

3. Problematic Project:

This Type Of Project Develops The Problem-Solving Capacity Of The Students Through Their Experiences. It Is Based On Cognitive Domain.

4. Drill Project:

It Is For Mastery Of Skill And Knowledge Of The Students, Also Increases The Capacity And Efficacy Of The Students.

Steps Of Project Method

  1. Creating Situation
  2. Selection Of The Problem
  3. Planning
  4. Execution
  5. Evaluation
  6. Reporting And Recording

Step 1 - Creating Situation

In The First Step Teacher Creates The Proper Situation To The Students In The Class.

Step 2 - Selection Of The Problem

The Teacher Helps The Students To Select The Problem And Guide Them. Students Are Having Freedom To Select The Problem.

Step 3 - Planning

The Teacher Discusses With The Students About The Problem In Various Angles And Points. After The Free Express Of Student's Opinion About The Problem, The Teacher Writes Stepwise In The Board.

Step 4 - Execution

The Students Are Stating Their Work In This Step. They Are Collecting The Relevant Information And Materials At First. The Teachers Give Time And Right To The Students According To Their Speed To Complete The Work With Their Ability And Interest.

Step 5 -Evaluation

Evaluation Of The Project Should Be Done Both By The Students And The Teachers. Here The Students Evaluating Their Task. Has Done In Light Of Plans And Achieved Results.

Step 6 - Reporting And Recording

It Is The Last Step Of The Project Method In Which Each And Every Step Of The Work Is Reported. The Reported Forms Are Recorded In Book.

What Is The Role Of The Teacher In Project Method Of Teaching?

  • In Project Method Of Teaching The Role Of A Teacher Is That Of A Guide, Friend And Philosopher Not A Dictator Or Commander.
  • He Encourages The Students To Work Cooperatively And Alert To Avoid The Mistakes.
  • If The Students Face Failure During Execution Of Some Steps Of The Project, The Teacher Should Not Execute Any Portion Of The Project Instead He Encourages Better Methods Or Approaches To Get Success.
  • He Should Have A Thorough Knowledge Of Individual Children So As To Allot Them Work Accordingly. He Should Have Initiative, Tact And Zest For Learning.
  • Teacher Should Active And Alert Then He Also Maintains The Democratic Atmosphere.

Advantages Of Project Method

Characteristics, Merits And Features Of Project Method

  1. Students Get Proper Freedom To Execute The Project In Accordance With Their Interest And Abilities Because They Satisfied The Needs.
  2. Habit Of Critical Thinking Gets Developed Among The Students Through This Method.
  3. With This Method, Students Get Ample Chances Which They Can Develop Coordination Among Their Body And Mind.
  4. This Method Helps In Promoting Social Interaction And Co-Operation Among The Students, As They Have To Work In Group And Interact With Experts.
  5. Mostly The Projects Are Undertaken In Classroom As Classroom Assignments, Because Of Which Load Of Homework From The Students For Reduced To Considerable Extent.

Disadvantages Of Project Method

Demerits And Limitations Of Project Method In Teaching

  • This Method Takes A Lot Of Time To Plan And Execute A Single Project.
  • It Is Not Possible To Design Different Projects For Different Topics And Also Not Able To Cover All Topics In The Content.
  • Such Method Can Only Be Proving Successful If The Teacher Is Highly Knowledgeable, Alert And Exceptionally Gifted.
  • Teachers Do Not Possess Lot Of Information Regarding The Manner In Which This Method Should Be Used As Result And Hesitate To Use.
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