Types Of Validity

Types Of Validity | What Are The Different Types Of Validity In Research | Methods Of Validity In Evaluation And Assessment

Meaning Of Validity

Validity Is The Quality Of Data Gathering Instrument Which Enables To Measure What It Is Supposed To Measure.

Validity Refers To The Degree To Which The Test Actually Measures What It Claims To Measure.

A Test With High Validity Has Items Closely Linked To The Test ‘S Intended Focus. A Test With Poor Validity Does Not Measure The Content And Competencies It Ought To.

Validity Encompasses The Entire Experimental Concept And Establishes Whether The Results Obtained Meet All Of The Requirements Of The Scientific Research Method.

A Quality Of A Measurement Indicating The Degree To Which The Measure Reflects The Underlying Construct, That Is, Whether It Measures What It Purports To Measure.

Types Of Validity

Different Methods Of Validity

Validity Is Not Absolute Characteristic; It Depends On Purpose And Method Used.

The Six Categories Of Validity Are

  1. Content Validity
  2. Construct Validity
  3. Criterion-Related Validity
  4. Concurrent Validity
  5. Predictive Validity
  6. Face Validity

Content Validity

Content Validity Refers To The Connections Between The Test Items And The Subject Related Tasks.

It Is Judged By The Degree Of Relationship Between Diagnostics Techniques And Achievements In Curriculum.

  • The Content Validity Of Academic Achievement Test In Subjects Is Examined By Checking The Test Items Against The Complete Courses Of Study.
  • The Test Should Evaluate Only The Outline Of The Content Related To The Field Of Study In A Manner Sufficiently Representative, Relevant, And Comprehensible.

Based On The Outline Of The Content Indicating The Kinds Of Knowledge And Abilities Which The Students Answer Correctly. The Overall Judgment Is Based On The Extent Of Agreement Between The Test And The Instructional Plan.

Construct Validity

Construct Validity Is The Relationship Between The Results Of A Technique Of Measurement And Other Indicators Of The Characteristics That Are Measured.

Construct Validity Seeks Agreement Between Updated Subject Matter Theories And The Specific Measuring Components Of The Test.

This Type Of Validation Is Often Used For Measures Of A Psychological Characteristic That Is Assumed To Exist By Empirical Or Theoretical Deduction.

In Order To Establish The Construct Validity Of A Test, It May Be Necessary To Correlate The Results Of Other Tests.

Criterion Related Validity

It Referred To As Instrumental Validity; It Is Used To Demonstrate The Accuracy Of A Measure Or Procedure By Comparing It With Another Process Or Method Which Has Been Demonstrated To Be Valid.

For Example, Imagine A Hands-On Driving Test Has Been Proved To Be An Accurate Test Of Driving Skills.

A Written Test Can Be Validated By Using A Criterion Related Strategy In Which The Hands-On Driving Test Is Compared To It.

Concurrent Validity

Concurrent Validity Refers To The Usefulness Of A Test In Closely Relating To Measures Or Scores On Another Test Of Known Validity.

Tests Are Validated By Comparing Their Results With A Test Of Known Validity. Concurrent Validity Indicates The Relationship Between A Measure And More Or Less Immediate Behaviour Or Performance Of Identifiable Groups.

Concurrent Validity Is Considered When Any Test Is Used For The Purpose Of Distinguishing Between Two Or More Groups Of Individuals Whose Status At The Time Of Testing Is Different.

Concurrent Validity Is Used For Statistical Methods Of Correlation To Other Measures. Once The Tests Have Been Scored, The Relationship Between The Examinees ‘Status And Their Performance (I.e., Pass Or Fail) Is Estimated Based On The Test.

Predictive Validity

Predictive Validity Refers To The Usefulness Of A Test In Predicting Some Future Performance.

Predictive Validity Is Measured By The Degree Of Relationship Between A Measured And Subsequent Criteria Measure Of Judgments.

This Type Of Validity Is Used In Tests Of

  • Intelligence,
  • Test Of Aptitudes,
  • Vocational Interest Inventories And
  • Projective Techniques.

This Type Of Validity Is Especially Useful For Test Purposes Such As Selection Or Admissions.

Face Validity

Face Validity Is The Characteristics Which Appear To Measure Those Which Are Actually Sought To Be Measured.

It Determined By A Review Of The Items And Not Through The Use Of Statistical Analyses. Unlike Content Validity, Face Validity Is Not Investigated Through Formal Procedures.

Instead, Anyone Who Looks Over The Test, Including Examinees, May Develop An Informal Opinion As To Whether Or Not The Test Is Measuring What It Is Supposed To Measure.

Face Validity Is Not However Suitable Measure Of Validity, Sometimes It Might Be Misleading.

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